rețeta de Mici

De salvat: rețeta de Mici pe care o căutam de ani de zile, pe care o făceau bătrânii noștri – rețeta originala

Asta e cea mai veche rețetă de mici pe care poporul român o are. Deși, după cum e normal, fiecare zonă, fiecare gospodar a adaptat rețeta după propriul gust, asta e rețeta la baza căreia stau toate cele de acum. Fă micii românești de casă, așa cum o făceau strămoșii noștri, e atât de simplu!

Timp de preparare: 30 min
Timp de gatire: 15 min
Gata in: 45 min

– 500 g carne tocată (mix vită, porc, chiar și oaie)
– 200 ml zeamă de oase de vită
– 3 căței de usturoi
– 1/2 linguriță de bicarbonat
– Condimente (cantitatea o stabilești după propriul gust): sare, piper, cimbru, ienibahar, boia, rozmarin

1. Deși carnea este deja tocată, de preferat ar fi să o mai dai printr-un robot sau o mașină de tocat. Condimentele vor pătrunde mai bine într-o pastă mai moale. Amestecă bine, adăugând treptat zeama de oase.

2. Adaugă condimentele, amestecă energic. Adaugă usturoiul, amestecă din nou energic. La final, adaugă și bicarbonatul. Dacă vrei, poți să și guști, ca să potrivești cum trebuie aromele.

3. Cel mai important lucru, secretul unei paste de mici cât mai gustoase? Nu trebue să îi pui imediat pe grătar! Formează micii și lasă-i în frigider între 3 și 24 de ore, ca să se pătrundă bine carnea de condimente.

4. Ca să aibă crustă rumenă și interior suculent, micii trebuie puși când grătarul/tigaia sunt bine încinse. Se prăjesc întâi câte 2 minute pe fiecare parte. Mai lasă-i cel mult 10 minute și scoate-i rapid, nu vrei să devină fazi și uscați!

Vietnamese Style Pickled Carrots

Vietnamese Style Pickled Carrots from Eating Local Cookbook

I’ve fully embraced the fact that I’m addicted to salt and crunchies. To preen me away from a jar of anything picked is like separating a mother bear from her cub. Please don’t get between me and my precious jar of pickled vegetables. Just don’t even think of going there. OK?With that submission to salt made clear, I’m blaming it all on my Vietnamese heritage because I pretty much started at birth (once I moved to solids) to eating pickled foods as part of my meals. The colorful collage of Vietnamese cuisine includes fresh textures of raw herbs/greens and often bright and crunchy pickles of some sort. I love eating my food in layers, where I have the luxury of biting into a pickled accouterment alongside savory grilled dishes, or tearing fragrant raw herbs into my hot bowls of brothy soup.

Each bite of Vietnamese food is exciting because of the diverse contrast of cool, crunchy, sour, sweet and salty textures.

Our pantry and fridge are continually stocked with pickles from our garden vegetables and when I’m low on staples such as Vietnamese pickled carrots and daikon, I’ll forage my veggie plots for new replacements. But this year, the daikon plot is taken up with fresh spinach, so all I had to pickle were the carrots. That’s fine by me because pickled carrots are still perfect as a single accompaniment. I kept it singular and simple. The carrots by themselves are equally divine and versatile!

When we first started the blog, one of the first recipes put up was my staple Vietnamese carrot and daikon pickles recipe. But last week I wanted to try a different recipe and I found it in a gorgeous new book by Janet Fletcher called Eating Local: The Cookbook Inpsired by America’s Farmers.

This lovely cookbook is a farmers markets dream because the every single recipe had a fruit or vegetable included in it and perusing through it is like walking the stalls of our local farmers markets. Each page is bursting with fabulous produce and it’s like visiting a stand from a favorite farmer. The color, freshness and appeal of every recipe is a proud reminder of why so many of us try to eat local and support our farmers.

Eating Local also takes readers on to the land and into the homes of 10 of America’s best small farmers as well. Their stories instantly connect all of us all to this vast food chain of eating locally and sustainably. I’m really looking forward to cooking from this cookbook because there’s recipes in here that can allow me to create a complete meal from fresh produce. A few days of vegetable meals isn’t a bad idea and my body is craving for that lately.


Vietnamese-Style Carrot and Daikon Pickles

Yield: 1 lb Pickles

Total Time: 10 Minutes

adapted from Eating Local by Janet Fletcher
Since I only had carrots growing in my garden and no daikon, I simply replaced the daikon half with carrots. Use any ratio you wish for the pound of veggies. Next time, I’ll have to try just pickling daikon!


  • 1/2 pound daikon, peeled
  • 1/2 pound large carrots, peeled
  • 1 teaspoon kosher or sea salt
  • 1 cup unseasoned rice vinegar
  • 2 tablespoons plus 2 teaspoons sugar
  • 1 cup water


  1. Wash daikon and carrots and cut into matchstick sizes, or round sizes (about thickness of a 25¢ quarter). Pat dry.
  2. In bowl, mix vinegar, salt, sugar and water until the sugar dissolves. Add the carrots and daikon to the mixture and let marinate for at least 1 hour before serving.
  3. For best pickled flavor, store vegetables in an airtight mason jar for about 5 days in the refrigerator.
Recipe Source:

Recipe Note for Salt: All recipes containing salt are based on kosher or sea salt amounts, not table salt. If using table salt, reduce the amount used to taste.

Supa crema de ciuperci

Pentru 8-12 portii


  • 1700-1800 gr ciuperci champignon fresh, culese pe camp, “de la curul vacii ” 🙂
  • 200-300 gr ciuperci mix ( am folosit baby pleurotus si shiitake) – pentru topping
  • 600 ml lapte
  • 400 gr smantana de gatit 35%
  • 8-10 catei ( mici-medii ) usturoi pisat
  • 1 ceapa rosie mare
  • 2 cepe galbene medii
  • 6-8 linguri ulei masline
  • aprox 75+25 gr unt ( dupa gust )
  • 2 litri apa ( sau supa gaina )
  • 3-4 linguri amidon, sau 2 cartofi
  • 1 lingura boia dulce
  • 1 lingurita boia iute
  • 1 lingura cu varf sare de mare, grunjoasa
  • 1 lingura rasa piper.
  • 2 legaturi marar

Am taiat cepele in jumatate, dupa aceea in feliute cat de subtiri am putut ( julienne/pestisori).

Se taie si ciupercile, in feliute subtiri, inclusiv cotoarele ( oricum se vor da prin blender si adauga savoare)

Am incins uleiul si 50-75 gr de unt, intr-o oala inalta, am adaugat ceapa si am lasat-o sa se caleasca incetisor, la foc mic ( cat timp am taiat ciupercile felii, amestecand din cand in cand sa nu se arda/prinda ceapa ). Trebuie sa se inmoaie foarte bine, mai-mai sa se topeasca ceapa.

Cand ceapa a fost calita si ciupercile taiate, le-am adaugat la calit, impreuna cu ceapa. Aici povestea poate sa ia doua cai:

  • fie calesti si ciupercile, pana scade toata zeama, gen le perpelesti putin, dupa care adaugi apa/supa
  • fie, dupa vreo 5 minute dupa ce ai adaugat ciupercile si incep sa scada o idee si sa lase zeama, adaugi apa/supa ( eu asa am facut, am uitat ca trebuie sa calesc si ciupercile + era cam tarziu si vroiam sa termin cu gateala )

Se lasa sa fiarba vreo 15-20 de minute, depinde cat de batrane sunt ciupercile.

Se da oala de pe foc, se iau cu o paleta ciupercile din zeama ( eu am pus in oale separate ciupercile, zeama, iar oala in care au fiert am curatat-o, sa fie gata pentru supa), se baga in blender, cam 1/2 blender ciuperci, 1/4 zeama ( sa fie plin cam 3/4), se mixeaza si se toarna pasta rezultata in oala initiala, care in prealabil a fost unsa pe fund cu putin ulei de masline sau unt.

Se adauga laptele si smantana, restul de zeama de ciuperci, se pune la fiert pana clocoteste, dupa care se reduce focul, sa fiarba incetisor, cam vreo 5-10 minute.

In timp ce fierbe supa, taiati felii ciupercile shiitake, pleurotus si cateva champignoane, le caliti intr-o tigaie neaderenta cu cele 25gr de unt, pana lasa zeama si se evapora. In ultimele doua minute sarati si piperati dupa gust, eu am amestecat continuu pana le-am luat de pe foc. Gata topping-ul! 🙂

Se piseaza usturoiul, se adauga condimentele ( boia, piper, sare, amidon – daca ati folosit cartofi, sariti amidonul ) intr-o cana cu putina apa rece ( sa nu se lipeasca amidonul ) si se amesteca bine. Sosul rezultat se inglobeaza in supa, se mai fierbe cateva minute.

Se toaca marunt mararul, se pastreaza putin pentru ornare, restul se inglobeaza in supa. Stingeti focul, puneti un capac si mai lasati 10 minute pe aragaz, pana sa serviti.

Se pune supa in bol/farfurie adanca, se presara o lingura de topping deasupra, se presara putin marar tocat si se serveste cu paine prajita, unsa/frecata cu un catel de usturoi.

Pofta buna!

© Andrei Galca-Vasiliu

52 ways to make money on a small homestead

making money on a small homestead

The dream of making a real living from the homestead – only venturing into the hustle and bustle of things for feed and farmers’ markets, and maybe the occasional bookstore – is one I’ll bet most of us share. And while it can feel elusive, I can see that each year we do get a few steps closer toward making it a reality, here at our little farm.

For us, this time of year is one of evaluation, brainstorming, and planning. With the garden harvested, and firewood in for the winter, it’s important to step back and review the just-finished growing season. We tweak and change our plans for the coming year based on what we’ve learned, and as part of that process we brainstorm ways to continue increasing our income from home.

One limiting factor about our homestead, however, is its size. We’re on just a tad more than two acres here, and I know we’re not the only ones working with small parcels. So what follows is a list of ways to make money from the homestead – specifically geared for those with limited acreage. This means you won’t see some of the usual ideas for farm income – like raising beef. I’ve also not included anything that requires a large outlay of capital – like establishing a commercial kitchen, or dedicated milking parlor. Instead, I’ve focused on endeavors that can be done with two acres of land or less, and with very little start-up cash.

Whenever possible, I’ve linked each idea to either my favorite online resource for getting started, or to a book that I’ve found especially informative. I hope you find some of these ideas helpful, as you get your own brainstorming juices flowing!


52 Ways to Make Money on a Small Homestead:

1.   Vegetables. When people think of making money from a homestead, chances are, market gardening is one of the first things that comes to mind. Whether selling from a garden cart at the end of your driveway, a booth at the farmers’ market, or through a CSA, that extra produce can be a good seasonal stream of income. This book has really transformed my approach to market gardening, bringing a whole new level of productivity and organization to our efforts. One other idea – if you find that even with preserving your harvest and selling the extra, you still have surplus produce – consider donating it to your local food pantry. Aside from feeling GREAT about sharing all that wonderful home-grown bounty, if your food pantry is a non-profit, you can take that donation out on your tax return. Those little things can make a difference, come tax time!

2.   Cut flowers. Turns out, cut flowers can actually rival vegetables when it comes to making a profit from a market garden, especially on a small acreage. It’s hard to beat Lynn Byczynski‘s book, The Flower Farmer, for an excellent how-to on the subject.

3.   Fresh and dried herbs. Again, Lynn offers excellent guidance on growing herbs for the market garden, in this article hosted by Johnny’s Selected Seeds.

4.   Chinese medicinal herbs. There’s a quickly growing market for sustainably  grown and harvested Chinese medicinals. This book is one of my favorites about getting started growing and selling them.

5.   Seed garlic. Selling garlic at the farmer’s market is great, but selling premium bulbs as seed garlic to other growers can command a far higher price. Bob, over at the Online Garlic Farmer’s Market, has some great tips on selling seed garlic online.How to make money on a small homestead

6.   Blogging and freelance writing. In this digital age, there are nearly infinite ways to make extra cash writing about what you know and love.  Writers Market can get you started if you’re interested in writing for periodicals and online publications. Blogging has actually been an enormous blessing to our family, and if you’re wondering how to turn even a small blog into a real income-maker, you need this book. It’s written by a fellow homesteader, and is an absolute game changer!

7.    Youtube videos. With a decent video camera, creating your own Youtube channel of homesteading and how-to videos can offer another income stream. Youtube has a good summary of the basics for getting started here.

8.   Teach a class. If you have homesteading know-how, and like working with people, why not do a little teaching? Say you have fruit trees – you need to prune them anyway. Might as well offer an afternoon pruning workshop right in your yard or orchard, and work with a handful of people to pass on a valuable skill.

9.   Feed bag totes. If you go through as much feed as we do, you probably have an endless supply of feed bags that can be upcycled into those trendy tote bags, and sold on Etsy, Ebay, or right at the farmer’s market. I like Mariah’s tutorial, over at Creative Country Life.

10.   Orchard fruit. Especially if you opt for dwarf varieties, or prune your trees to stay small, it’s amazing how many bushels of fruit can come from a very small acreage. We’ve found Ann Ralph’s method of pruning for small trees to be a game-changer, and I also find Stefan Sobkowiak’s take on permaculture orcharding to be particularly inspiring.

11.   Small-scale nursery. A wonderful companion enterprise to a backyard orchard can be a small scale nursery. Because so little space is needed per tree, you can start thousands of trees and perennials in less than an acre. This interview with Akiva Silver of Twisted Tree Nursery is enough to make even those with just a postage stamp of lawn want to get started!how to make money on a homestead

12.   Farm fresh eggs. Lisa, over at Fresh Eggs Daily, has an especially good post about getting started with selling eggs from a backyard flock.

13.   Day-old chicks or ducklings. If your flock includes a rooster (or drake, in the case of ducks), incubating those fertile eggs and selling the chicks can be a delightful little enterprise. It’s especially rewarding if, like me, you’re a hopeless hatchaholic, who can’t stop hatching out more little fluffballs than you can possibly keep! Here’s a post with my best tips for hatching and selling chicks for extra income. If you’ve never hatched chicks and need a good how-to, Kathy, “The Chicken Chick” has a delightful post series on getting started with hatching.

14.   Fertile hatching eggs. I’ve found that there’s a ready market for fertilized hatching eggs. For a good, quick read on best practices for collecting and storing hatching eggs, check out this post. The price they command varies greatly, depending on whether your chickens are just good old barnyard mix layers, or a rare breed or show stock. If you do have a rarer breed that’s highly in demand, you may find that being willing to ship can dramatically increase your clientele. This online tutorial is a great resource for those just getting started shipping eggs.

15.   Seedlings. This guide to growing and selling seedlings is a wonderful jumping off point. I always start way, way, way more seedlings than I can use, so this is an idea I’m looking forward to implementing next to make money on a homestead seedlings

16.   Plant markers. While you’re growing those seedlings for sale, why not make some adorable plant markers, so you can up-sell to your customers? People love unique plant markers, and I think these tutorials for hammered spoon markers , painted stone markers, and wood burned spoon markers, are especially charming.

17.   Handmade Soap. This fantastic three-part series is a wonderful resource, if you’re interested in making and selling homemade soap.

18.   Honey. Sheri, over at Honeybees Online, has some excellent pointers for getting started selling honey, including how to find customers for your honey.

19.   Honeycomb products. This article has some great ideas for other value-added products that can be made with honeycomb and beeswax.

20.   Breeding livestock guardian dogs. Especially for those who have need of a livestock guardian anyway, breeding LGDs can be a nice recurring income stream. The “Library” page of the Livestock Guardian Dogs Association is a wonderful resource.

21.   Mushrooms. The Mushroom People have an excellent guide to getting started selling mushrooms on their site.

22.   Pastured Pork. We have had so much fun raising pigs this year. We did a lot of reading as we were getting started, and I think Dirk van Loon’s Small-Scale Pig Raising is a particularly helpful read. making money homesteading pastured pork

23.   Broiler rabbits. We’re excited to be adding rabbits to our homestead next year, and I’ve found this post, by the folks at Rise and Shine Rabbitry, to be especially helpful.

24.   Rabbit pelts. If you’re raising rabbits for meat anyway, why not tan the pelts and sell directly to hobbyists? The good folks over at Vela Creations have what I think is hands-down one of the best tutorials for tanning your own rabbit pelts. We’re about to try this for the first time this fall!

25.   Stock photos. If you’re fond of taking photos around the homestead, licensing some of those as stock photos might provide a nice continuing trickle of passive income. I especially like this article, with lots of good tips for getting started.

26.   Broilers. It’s pretty hard to beat Joel Salatin’s Pastured Poulty Profits, when it comes to a great manual for getting started with raising broiler chickens.

27.   Turkeys. I’ve yet to talk the mister into letting me add a few turkeys to our backyard flock, but I’ve always been drawn to them, and have a feeling that one of these days we might hear some “gobble gobble” around here. Again, Salatin’s work is a fantastic resource, and I also like this article about the resurgence of raising heritage turkeys.

28.   Renting out poultry processing equipment. If you process your own birds and have good equipment  – like killing cones, a quality feather-plucker, and even specialized knives – renting them out can provide some nice additional revenue. You might be surprised at the demand for drum-style plucker rentals!

29.   Pastured lamb. If you have good pasture, a few sheep can do very well even on a small homestead. We absolutely love our sheep, but have found them more challenging than our other livestock – Storey’s Guide to Raising Sheep has been our go-to resource for getting to make money on a small homestead

30.   Wool. If you’re raising sheep and shearing them, finding a market for that wool can be another income stream. I like these tips for helping to maximize wool quality in sheep.

31.   Sheepskins. It may be 40 years old, but I really love this how-to piece on tanning sheepskins, by Roberta Kirberger. Last time I saw these offered at a farmer’s market, they were going for well over $100, and sold out faster than the sweet corn!

32.   Stud Services. If you keep a boar, ram or buck – especially if he’s registered and from a desirable breed – renting out his services could be an additional income.

33.   Berries. We’re slowly adding to our berry plantings each year, and look forward to having enough to sell in a couple of years. I’ve found this free publication from ATTRA to be a helpful resource for getting started.

34.   Strawberry plants. Much like selling seedlings, but slightly more labor intensive. If you’ve got an established bed of strawberries, you know how many runners those plants put out. Intentionally rooting those runners as new plants can give a nice supply of strawberry plants to offer for sale in the spring. This site has good tips on propagation.

35.   Manure. Extra manure can be such a welcome resource for local gardeners. If you don’t have an enough to offer it by the truckload, even just filling old feed bags and offering them for sale at the end of the driveway has worked well for many the small farm in our area.

36.   Wreaths. If you have a good free supply of evergreens or grapevines, and love making your own wreaths, this one’s a no-brainer. Selling them through Etsy and at craft fairs, and directly marketing to local businesses, can all be good ways to add up some seasonal cash.making money on a small homestead

37.   Woody ornamentals. Have you ever thought of selling dogwood, holly, or pussy willows, by the stem? Especially if you like to maintain a hearty buffer zone between your home and the road or neighboring properties, using desirable woody ornamentals for your plantings can build a self-perpetuating stream of income for your homestead. This little write-up about getting started is one that we’ve found helpful!

38.   Jams and Jellies. This guide to cottage food laws will help you know what the guidelines are for selling tasty homemade food items in your state.

39.   Quail. These delectable little birds are table-ready at just 6-8 weeks of age. Talk about a quick return on investment! As I’ve explored the idea of adding quail to our menagerie, I’ve enjoyed this post, enhanced by plenty of photos, offered from the good folks over at High Lonesome Homestead.

40.    Saving and selling seeds. Dan Brisebois shares his down-to-earth story of getting started raising crops for seed in this helpful printable seed packet template

41.   Wooden spoon blanks. This is one that could piggy-back off of a backyard orchard. If you’re pruning good hardwoods like apple or maple anyway, might as well keep any desirable crooks from the pruned wood – these are wonderful carving out wooden spoons, and you can offer them for sale on Etsy or Ebay. This tutorial is the best I’ve seen on selecting wood for spoon carving.

42.   Grapes. Local table grapes are much less common at farmers markets than, say, heirloom tomatoes, and demand a good price. High end restaurants love them. And if you’re in an area with small scale wineries and grow the right varietals, there’s a good chance you might be able to supply them with better grapes than what they may be shipping in. There’s lots of great information out there about getting established with small scale grape growing, and this book is a solid place to start.

43.   Custom milling. With a good tabletop mill, and locally-sourced grain, it’s easy to offer desirable custom-milled flours at the farmers’ markets.

44.   Foraging for profit. I really like Alan Muscat’s perspective in this interview.

45.   Metalsmithing. This has been a fun one for us – I love having my very own blacksmith, and Dan has really been making some beautiful things. When he was first setting up his shop, this was a book he found particularly helpful.make money homesteading

46.   Pallet-wood furniture or signs. If you make a trip to the grain store every week or two, you may have noticed a perpetual pile of free pallets by the dumpster. While they’re fabulous for building low-cost fencing and animal shelters, they can also be easily upcycled into simple pieces of furniture or signs.

47.   Raising pigeons. Growing up in depression-era Baltimore, my grandfather used to catch squabs (young pigeons), and cook them up for his young cronies. How ironic that what was once a subsistence food has now begun to grace the white tablecloths of many high-end restaurants!  this site as a good place to explore the idea of raising pigeons for profit.

48.   Maple Syrup (and other tree syrups). Having maples, birches, or even walnut trees on the homestead can open up another possible revenue stream. I grew up looking forward to every February as a time for making maple syrup, and it’s such a delightful endeavor for that slightly dreary, end-of-winter season. This book is a fabulous introduction to the art of making syrup and sugar from tree sap.

49.   Daylilies. I never knew how passionate daylily aficionados could be, until the day I offered a few extra rhizomes on Craigslist. They were in the way of my new rhubarb bed, and it seemed like a good idea. Wowzers. People love lilies! My inbox was full for days. They’re easy to propagate, and – in my experience anyway, practically sell themselves. This blog offers one of the best guides to daylily propagation that I’ve seen.make money homesteading

50.   Building coops, cages, and grow-out runs. If you have critters, chances are, you’ve gotten pretty good at working with wood and wire to efficiently build small pens, cages, nesting boxes, and the like. Next time you whip up a cage for a rabbit, or a grow-out pen for the broilers, try making an extra or two, and post them in your local farming facebook group – I think you’ll be stunned at how quickly they sell. This tutorial from Kevin and Dani over at the Adventure Bite is where we got the plans for our chicken run, and I am constantly being asked if I sell them. Next year!

51.   Bug farming. I’m totally serious, folks. While there will always be a market for crickets and mealworms at your local petstore, there’s also a rapidly growing restaurant market for the little critters. And talk about a side business that doesn’t require a lot of space – even a closet is enough room to get off to a good start. Check out Tiny Farms and Open Bug Farm Project to see what I’m talking about.

52.   Christmas trees. I used to assume that lots of acreage was a requisite for a Christmas tree farm, but turns out that even an acre can support 1,500 fir trees, if grown with a goal height of 5-7′. Allowing for yearly turnover, and at average prices, that works out to about $9,000 worth of trees every year, in just an acre of space. I especially like this site for tips about getting started.


By no means is this an exhaustive list, but I do hope it serves as some inspiration to fuel your own brainstorming sessions. I’d LOVE to hear your own ideas and suggestions for making money on a small homestead – leave me a comment below!

Plantarea pomilor fructiferi

Plantarea pomilor fructiferi necesita studii temeinice din punct de vedere al alegerii locului, al sortimentului de specii, soiuri si portaltoi. Pomii fructiferi se pot planta pana la altitudinea de 1.500 m, de unde se incep sa se adapteze bine arbustii fructiferi.

Alegerea terenului
Terenul ales si destinat plantarii pomilor fructiferi, fie ca este vorba de o suprafata mai mica sau de una mai mare, trebuie sa intruneasca anumite cerinte legate de situarea lor, gradul de fertilitate, posibilitatile de udare si mecanizare.

Pentru o plantare reusita terenul trebuie sa fie plan sau sa aiba o panta usoara, de pana la 10%. Terenurile cu pante de peste 10% si pana la 15% nu sunt recomandate pentru cais, piersic si nectarin.

Cele mai bune soluri pentru plantarea pomilor fructiferi sunt cernoziomurile, bogate in humus si solurile brun-roscate de padure, solurile lutoase si luto-argiloase nefiind favorabile pentru cultura pomilor.

Solul trebuie sa permeabil, pentru a se evita baltirea apei, avand grija ca panza de apa freatica sa se afle la peste 2-3 m adancime. Atentie ca sursele permanente de apa pentru udarea pomilor si pentru tratamente fitosanitare sa nu fie poluate.

Se va evita plantarea pomilor fructiferi pe terenurile puternic inierbate, pe solurile mai putin fertile, recomandandu-se utilizarea unei culturi premergatoare (lucerna) care fertilizeaza natural terenul.

Terenurile unde se va efectua plantarea pomilor fructiferi vor fi expuse la soare, orientarea preferata a randurilor fiind Nord-Sud. In zona dealurilor inalte se vor alege numai specii si soiuri mai rezistente la frig si care pot lega fructe chiar in primaverile ploioase.

Nu se recomanda plantarea in vaile inguste, cu curenti puternici de aer, precum si zonele cu frecvente ingheturi tarzii de primavara. In zonele cu frecventa mare a vanturilor sunt obligatorii perdelele de protectie cu arbori inalti (stejar, frasin, artar, salcam).

Zonarea speciilor pomicole
Zonarea speciilor se va face in functie de pretentiile fiecarei specii si chiar a soiurilor fata de lumina si caldura, precum si de rezistenta la geruri, oscilatii de temperatura si alte accidente climatice.

Marul, parul, gutui, prunul, ciresul, visinul, se pot cultiva in zona dealurilor subcarpatice,iar in zonele calde de campie, se vor planta mai ales: cais, piersic, fara a exclude celelalte specii. Desi in cadrul tuturor speciilor s-au creat soiuri autocompatibile, se recomanda folosirea a cel putin 2-3 soiuri, pentru o mai buna polenizare.

Plantarea pomilor fructiferi
Perioada optima de plantare a pomilor fructiferi este toamna, incepand cu 15 octombrie si pana la venirea primului inghet. Exista avantajul ca prinderea este sigura, deoarece exista in sol umiditate suficienta. In perioada de iarna ranile de pe radacini au timp suficent sa se cicatrizeze, emitand noi perisori absorbanti, care permit reluarea vegetatiei primavara timpuriu.

Plantarea de primavara da rezultate bune cu cat se face mai devreme. Plantarea pomilor fructiferi primavara, este recomandata a se efectua inainte de umflarea mugurilor, prinderea fiind conditionata de udarile repetate, ce devin absolut obligatorii in perioada de seceta.

In vederea plantarii de toamna trebuie efectuate o serie de pregatiri absolut necesare si anume dupa care se executa plantarea propriu-zisa. De asemenea trebuie stabilite dinainte speciile ce se planteaza in livada.

livada pomi fructiferi

Stabilirea corecta a distantei
dintre randuri si dintre pomi pe rand se face pentru fiecare specie in parte de pe grupe de soiuri cu vigoare asemanatoare, tinandu-se seama si de portaltoiul utilizat, deoarece el are importanta foarte mare asupra cresterii pomilor.

Distanta intre randuri trebuie sa nu fie mai mica de 3,5-4,5 m, pentru a asigura spatiul de lumina necesar. Sunt foarte pretentiosi la acest factor caisii, piersicii, migdalii, ciresii, ca si unele soiuri de mar si par. Pe solurile cu fertilitate naturala ridicata, distantele de plantare trebuie marite, deoarece pomii cresc mai voluminosi.

Pregatirea gropilor
Sapatul gropilor se face cu 40-60 zile inainte de plantarea propriu-zisa, cu scopul de a crea conditii de aerare a pamantului si de a activa dezvoltarea microflorei din sol. Pamantul rezultat de la sapatul gropilor se asaza de o parte si de alta a randului sub forma de musuroaie (se are grija ca peretii gropii sa fie verticali).

Stratul de la suprafata (30-35 cm) se asaza in aceeasi parte a randului la toate gropile (de exemplu spre est), iar stratul inferior in cealalta parte (spre vest). De aceasta asezare a straturilor de pamant in musuroaie se va tine cont la umplerea partiala a gropilor inainte de plantare.

Umplerea partiala a gropilor se executa cu 2-3 saptamani inainte de plantare. La fundul gropii se arunca 15-20 cm pamant din stratul inferior, apoi se completeaza pana la jumatate sau doua treimi cu pamant din stratul de la suprafata. Se urmareste ca pamantul cel mai fertil sa se gaseasca in zona radacinilor pomului.

Procurarea pomilor fructiferi
Pentru pomilor fructiferi, se face o alegere riguroasa a materialului saditor. Este indicat ca materialul saditor sa fie procurat din toamna, din pepiniere consacrate (statiunea Baneasa), recunoscute oficial si controlate, care garanteaza autenticitatea, calitatea si sanatatea pomului.

Pomii fructiferi cumparati se vor transporta direct in gospodarie, mentinand radacinile protejate de contactul cu aerul, de caldura sau curent, pentru a nu se deshidrata. In functie de data cand are loc plantarea, pomii fructiferi se pot tine in beciuri, cu umiditate corectata prin udarea radacinilor.

Pentru pastrarea un timp mai indelungat, pomii fructiferi se vor stratifica in santuri sau gropi adanci de 30-40 cm, cu latimea de 30-50 cm, facute la adapostul cladirilor, in scopul protectiei pomilor. Materialul saditor se va aseza in picioare, in legaturi, cu eticheta, si se va acoperi pe radacini si pe 20-30 cm din tulpina cu nisip sau pamant bine maruntit.

Se vor planta numai pomi fructiferi bine dezvoltati, sanatosi, cu radacini lungi de peste 25-30 cm, neofilite, turgescente. Se inlatura toti pomii cu tumori canceroase pe radacini, oricat de mici ar fi acestea.

Alegerea portaltoilor
trebuie facuta in functie de calitatile solului. Pentru solurile uscate din zona de campie se prefera ca portaltoi zarzarul pentru cais, eventual pentru prun; migdalul amar si piersicul pentru piersic; mahalebul pentru cires si visin, corcodusul pentru prun, parul franc pentru par, marul franc pentru mar.

pregatirea pentru plantareCum trebuie sa arate un pom corespunzator pentru plantare?
– sa aiba 1-2 ani, si o inaltime de peste 1m;
– radacinile principale sa fie sanatoase, de peste 20-30 cm, iar in cazul pomilor altoiti pe portaltoi vegetativi sa fie cu un smoc de radacini subtiri;
– tulpina si radacina nu trebuie sa fie deshidratate sau cu rani;
– la pomii de 2-3 ani, coroana trebuie sa fie deja formata.

Fasonarea radacinilor
se face pentru improspatarea sectiunii la radacinile de schelet mai groase de 3-4mm. Tinand cont ca prinderea se face pe baza radacinilor groase, de schelet, acestea se lasa cat mai lungi daca nu sunt ranite, in caz contrar acestea se fasoneaza deasupra ranii. Prin aceasta se innoiesc taieturile facute la scos, operand cu foarfeca; se scurteaza radacinile frante ori ranite, imediat deasupra ranii, lasandu-se intregi cele sanatoase principale. Radacinile subtiri, sub un milimetru diametru, se scurteaza la 1-2 cm, iar cele uscate se pot suprima de la baza, pentru a stimula aparitia altora noi.

Mocirlirea radacinilor
consta in scufundarea repetata a radacinilor pomilor intr-un amestec alcatuit din parti egale de balega proaspata de vaca, pamant de telina si apa. Aceasta mocirla stimuleaza vindecarea ranilor si aparitia de noi radacini. Pomii se vor planta imediat dupa aceasta operatiune pentru ca mocirla sa nu se usuce pe radacini.

Ingrasarea la plantare
este o alta conditie esentiala. In pamantul destinat plantarii (stratul provenit de la suprafata) se amesteca 10-15 kg (1-2 galeti) de gunoi de grajd bine putrezit, plus 50-60 g superfosfat si 50-60 g sare potasica.

Stabilirea corecta a adancimii de plantare a pomilor fructiferi
Pomii se aseaza in gropi astfel ca punctul de altoire sa ramana deasupra nivelului solului.Pe fundul gropii se face un musuroi din pamant reavan pe care se aseaza radacinile pomulu. Se arunca apoi pamant marunt si reavan (din cel amestecat cu ingrasaminte), introducandu-se usor cu degetele rasfirate printre radacini.

Plantarea pomilor fructiferiDupa ce au fost acoperite radacinile, se scutura usor pomul (fara sa fie tras afara) pentru ca pamantul sa patrunda bine intre toate radacinile. Dupa ce s-a nivelat solul tras peste radacini, se taseaza foarte bine prin calcare insistenta. Se trage apoi tot pamantul in groapa, pana la nivelul superior al acesteia si se calca din nou.

Daca este cazul se mai adauga 5-10 kg mranita, o galeata de apa, apoi se mai calca o data si se face un musuroi larg in jurul trunchiului pentru a proteja radacinile de ger. Cu restul pamantului ramas se executa apoi o copca (farfurie) in jurul pomului. In aceasta copca se toarna 1-2 galeti de apa.

Udarea este absolut necesara la plantare pentru ca apa dreneaza toti graunciorii de pamant intre radacini, elimina aerul, previne aparitia mucegaiului, iar pomul se lasa putin in jos, “se asaza” revenind astfel cu coletul exact la nivelul suprafetei solului; adica la fel cat a fost in pepiniera.

Dupa ce apa a patruns in sol, se strange tot pamantul din jurul pomului sub forma de musuroi. Acesta are rolul de a proteja radacinile pomului impotriva inghetului din timpul iernii.

Coroana sau partea aeriana a pomului ramane nefasonata; taierile urmand sa se efectueze in primavara, la sfarsitul lunii februarie, inceputul lunii martie.

Cei mai rezistenți pomi fructiferi pe care îi poți planta în această primăvară

Rezistența pomilor fructiferi la anumiți factori de mediu trebuie avută în vedere înainte de a investi într-o livadă, indiferent de mărimea ei. Greșelile pe care le poți face cu privire la această selecție se repară greu și pot conduce, în final, până la defrișarea plantației de pomi fructiferi. Spre exemplu, nu poți cultiva cais sau piersic într-o regiune umbroasă și ploioasă, pentru că acești pomi fructiferi nu vor rodi corect și la capacitate maximă.

De asemenea, nu este indicat să cultivi măr sau păr în zone unde precipitațiile sunt mai mici de 500 de ml/mp/an. Pentru a da roade, acești pomi fructiferi au nevoie de o cantitate de peste 600 ml/mp/an de precipitații. De aceea, înainte de a planta pomi fructiferi în grădina ta, ar fi bine să ai în vedere preferințele fiecărei specii față de factorii de mediu.

Cei mai rezistenţi pomi fructiferi: mărul şi prunul

În România, pomii fructiferi care rezistă cel mai bine la frig sunt considerați a fi mărul şi prunul. Datorită acestei rezistenţe, merele sunt fructele cele mai consumate pot fi găsite numeroase livezi în întreaga ţară. De asemenea, soiurile altoite de prun rezistă foarte bine la variaţiile de temperatură, fapt ceea ce duce producţii importante an de an. Înfloritul, germinarea polenului și legarea fructelor se realizează în condiții de temperatură cuprinsă între 12 si 20 grade Celsius.

Temperaturile negative, brumele, ploile reci, vântul uscat sau prea cald diminuează procentul de legare sau compromite total florile. Fructele tinere sunt și mai sensibile la îngheț; ele pot degera la -1,1…-1,5 grade Celsius. Nucul este un alt pom care rezistă bine la variaţiile de temperatură sau apă. Totuşi, acest tip de arbore are nevoie neapărată de lumină pentru o bună producţie de frunte.

Temperaturile minime de rezistenţă la ger a pomilor
– Măr – 35 grade C … -36 grade C
– Păr – 32 grade C … -33 grade C
– Gutui – 28 grade C … -30 grade C
– Prun – 30 grade C … -32 grade C
– Cais – 26 grade C … -28 grade C
– Piersic – 24 grade C … -26 grade C
– Cireș – 29 grade C … -32 grade C
– Vișin – 30 grade C … -32 grade C
– Căpșun – 22 grade C … -24 grade C
– Smochin – 16 grade C

Cerinţele faţă de căldură
– Cei mai pretenţioşi faţă de căldură sunt în ordine descrescândă migdalul, caisul, piersicul şi apoi gutuiul, cireşul, alunul, castanul şi nucul.
– Mai puţin pretenţioşi sunt: părul, prunul european, vişinul şi mărul,
– Nepretentiosi căpşunul, coacăzul, agrişul şi zmeurul.

Rezistenţi la secetă: migdalul și caisul altoit pe migdal

Apa este un factor deosebit pentru creșterea de pomi fructiferi. Pomii cresc și rodesc bine dacă solul are 75-85% din spațiile lui pline cu apă iar umiditatea aerului este de 65-80%.

Dacă solul reține prea multa apă și lipsește aerul, frunzele se îngălbenesc iar treptat pomii se usucă, pentru că rădăcinile nu mai pot respira.

Printre pomii care rezistă cel mai bine la secetă sunt migdalul, caisul altoit pe migdal şi cireşul altiot pe vişinul turcesc. În perioadele cu ger, însă, migdalul şi caisul au mari probleme: mugurii acestora degeră, chiar şi o parte din ramuri.

Rezistența la secetă a speciilor de pomi fructiferi

foarte rezistente
– Migdal altoit pe migdal
– Cais altoit pe migdal
– Cires altoit pe mahaleb (vișin turcesc)
– Vișin altoit pe mahaleb
– Păr (soiuri de vară) altoit pe păr sălbatic și piersic franc
rezistență mijlocie
– Piersic (soiuri târzii) altoit pe franc
– Cireș și vișin altoite pe cireș sălbatic
– Soiuri târzii de păr altoite pe păr sălbatic și franc
sensibile la secetă
– soiuri de măr altoite pe portaltoi vegetativi M9 si M4
– păr și gutui altoiți pe gutui
– piersic altoit pe mirobolan și prun

Sol umed sau uscat

Solurile ideale pentru înființarea unei livezi sunt cernoziomurile, bogate în humus și solurile brun-roșcate de pădure. Pe de altă parte, solurile lutoase și luto-argiloase nefiind favorabile pentru acest tip de cultură. De asemenea, trebuie evitate solurile grele care rețin multă apă și în care rădăcinile se îneacă sau putrezesc.

Exista însă recomandări în funcție de caracteristicile climatice ale zonei în care urmează să fie înființată livada. În zonele secetoase sunt de preferat solurile mai grele, căci rețin mai multă apă, iar în zonele umede ideale sunt solurile ușoare, care se încălzesc ușor. Este bine de reținut că piersicul, caisul, părul și ciresul iubesc solurile ușoare iar prunul, mărul și vișinul, pe cele mai grele.

A Smarter Way to Clean Your Home

A Smarter Way to Clean Your Home

Every home — big, small, apartment or vacation home — gets dirty. And while there’s not just one way to clean your living space, there is a smarter way to get the job done. Take this guided tour of your home — from the kitchen and bathroom to the bedroom and living areas — to learn the basic rules of cleaning as well as some tips and short cuts that will help you clean thoroughly and efficiently, starting now.

The Sweethome, a New York Times company, has spent hours testing cleaning products and you’ll see I reference them when they’ve reviewed products I recommend.

How to Clean the Kitchen

In the kitchen, wiping surfaces, keeping tabs on the fridge and washing dishes every day will prevent big time-consuming messes down the line.

Keep Dishes Clean

If you’re a person who tends to let dishes pile up in the sink to avoid washing them, try this simple trick to put the effort involved into perspective: For a few days, as you think of it, set a timer before you begin washing the dishes, and make note of how long it took to clean up. If you know the task will take just minutes to complete, it will be less difficult to convince yourself to take care of those dishes now.

How to Clean a Burned Pot: To clean a badly scorched pot without scrubbing, cover the burned area with a liberal amount of baking soda and pour in enough boiling water to fill the pot a third to halfway up. When the water is cool enough to touch, head in with your sponge and use the baking soda solution to scrub away the scorch. Dump the solution and wash the pot with hot, soapy water.

The Dishwasher Debate: While there isn’t an absolutely correct way to load a dishwasher (and what would couples bicker over if such a directive were carved in stone?), there is one universal rule: It is much easier to load from back to front.

Clean Your Sink

The sink, especially the faucet, can be wiped free of bacteria and food particles with an all-purpose cleaner. And we all should probably clean the faucet more often, considering it’s something we touch with raw-chicken-covered hands.

Sponges should be cleaned frequently, too, either by running them through the dishwasher or microwave. If you use a microwave, first make sure the sponge does not contain any metal, then get the sponge very wet and nuke it for two minutes; be careful when you remove it, as it will be quite hot.

Has your sponge holder developed mold or bacterial buildup? Use a toothbrush dipped in bleach or white vinegar — but never both, as the combination creates a dangerous chemical reaction — to scrub away mold. Follow by washing the sponge caddy with hot, soapy water or run it through the dishwasher.

Keep Surfaces Clean

Wipe your counter and stovetops with an all-purpose cleaner after use. Stovetops in particular benefit from this type of regular, quick cleaning, as splatters, drips and grease become baked on when left too long.

How to clean a stovetop: Something tough will be required to scour away baked-on splatters and greasy film. A Dobie Pad, which is a nonscratch scrubbing sponge, combined with a gentle powder cleanser will make short work of stubborn messes. When cleaning stainless steel, scrub with the grain, rather than in a circular motion, to avoid scratching, and use a gentle touch, allowing the product, rather than force, to do the bulk of the cleaning work.

How to clean small appliances: The exterior of small appliances like toasters, coffeemakers and blenders that sit out on countertops should be wiped frequently using all-purpose cleaners to prevent the buildup of splatters and greasy film from cooking. For deeper cleaning, take off all removable parts and wash it by hand or in the dishwasher. Give the exterior a once-over with all-purpose cleaner using tools like cotton swabs or an old toothbrush to get into tight corners and other hard-to-reach spots.

Tackle the Refrigerator

An easy way to keep tabs on a refrigerator is to add one simple task to your trash day routine: When bagging up the garbage, open the fridge and eye its contents. Are there leftovers that have gone bad? Toss them. Has any produce liquefied in the crisper drawer? Dump it. Are the last few eggs in the carton about to go off? Make a note to have omelets for dinner, and congratulate yourself for being mindful of not wasting food.

How to Clean Spills in the Refrigerator: When sticky spills happen in the fridge or pantry, make short work of cleaning them by making a compress of sorts. Soak a sponge or rag in very hot water (mind your hands) and wring it so that it’s not dripping. Then, press it onto the sticky spot until the compress begins to lose its heat. If the sticky spill has loosened sufficiently, wipe it away; if it’s still clinging stubbornly, repeat as needed until the substance loosens up, and then wipe clean.

Take Out the Trash in a Timely Fashion

Here is a hard truth: Time will not make your trash situation better. Take care of it now.

How to Clean the Bathroom

If ever there was a place where regular cleaning — once a week, once every other week, depending on use — makes your life better, it’s in the bathroom. Wait longer, and it turns into a disgusting job.

Scrub the Shower and/or Tub, Sink and Toilet

Many products designed for cleaning the shower and/or tub, sink and toilet do much of the work for you, provided you let them. The instructions will tell you how best to apply a product, and for how long to let it work before wiping or scrubbing away. It’s always a good idea to test a new product on an inconspicuous spot to ensure that it doesn’t cause discoloration.

How to clean tile and grout: Let the product do the work for you. Apply a mold- and mildew-eliminating product and let it penetrate the grout before hitting the surface with a stiff-bristled scrub brush. This will make much shorter work of what can be a tedious and exhausting chore.

How to remove soap scum: Water spots and soap scum that build up on glass shower doors can drive you crazy, but try this strange tip: Wet a dryer sheet and scrub the glass in a circular motion. A milky white film will form, which can be wiped away using water and a squeegee, paper towels or a microfiber cloth. The dryer sheet doesn’t need to be new; you can press a dryer sheet that’s been used for laundry into double duty for this task.

Hair Management

Hair is a particular issue in bathrooms. In general, hair pickup should be a dry proposition. Start by vacuuming, sweeping or dry mopping; if you introduce, say, a wet mop to a hairy floor, you’ll end up with wet strands stuck to the floor. In the sink and around the toilet bowl, use paper towels or rags to pick up hairs before you introduce liquid cleansers.

How to keep bathroom floors clean: Store a small handheld vacuum in the bathroom to make staying on top of loose hairs a cinch.

How to Clean Your Bedroom

A little effort makes a big difference in the bedroom. Simply making the bed and moving mugs and glasses to the kitchen every the morning will do wonders for creating the appearance of a tidy bedroom.

Make Your Bed

At the risk of unleashing your latent sullen teenager, it must be said that making the bed every day is a good habit. Would you like some reasons?

  • It makes the bedroom look pulled together, and that’s nice to come home to.
  • If you have pets, making the bed helps to keep hair, dander and drool off your sheets.
  • Turning down the bed at night is a ritual that can signal to the brain that it’s time for sleep.
  • Getting into a made bed just feels so good!

It’s also worth saying this: Many people think that making the bed is a waste of time, and that’s O.K. We’re not all moved by the same things, and what a tidy-looking bed does for one person may not do a single thing for another.

If you prefer to let the bedlinens air out during the day, make the bed with the sheets exposed by folding the blanket and top sheet halfway down toward the foot of the bed .

How to make a hospital corner: Do you love a tightly tucked bed? Hospital corners are easy to master, once you know the steps to take:

  1. Spread the flat sheet over the bed, with overhang on the sides and foot of the bed.
  2. Starting at the foot of the bed, tuck the sheet tightly under the mattress.
  3. Take the sheet on one side of the bed and lift it up, creating a 45 degree fold up the side of the mattress. Then, tuck the excess fabric under the mattress.
  4. Bring the lifted portion down, square the lines with the corner of the mattress and tuck it tightly.
  5. Repeat on the other side of the bed.

How Often You Should Wash Your Sheets

Ideally, the bed should be made with a clean set of sheets once a week or once every other week. The timing depends on a whole bunch of factors, such as:

  • Do you sleep in the nude?
  • Are there multiple people sleeping in your bed?
  • Are you frequently having sex in the bed?
  • Are you a person who sweats at the night?
  • Are children co-sleeping with you?

If you answer yes to a few of these, you should consider changing your sheets more often. The choice also depends on how much time you have for the chore, and on how much you care about having clean sheets on the bed.

To make the job of stripping the sheets and remaking the bed seem less terrible, consider the reward: Later that night, you’ll get to slip into fresh sheets. Fresh Sheet Day is worth the work.

​Put Clothes Away

Make putting away your freshly laundered clothes part of laundry day. You wouldn’t bring bags of groceries into the house, set them down in front of the refrigerator and call it a day. Same with clean clothes: Part of laundry duty is putting them away.

Keep Surfaces Clean

A feather duster may seem like a relic of the past, but in a bedroom — where we often use dresser tops and bedside tables to store books, eyeglasses, remote controls, etc. — that duster will make quick work of eliminating dust from knickknack-laden surfaces. The nature of gravity being what it is, dust first, vacuum second.

If you enjoy a cup of tea in the evening, or leave a glass of water by the bed in case you get thirsty in the night, make a habit of moving it to the kitchen in the morning to prevent dirty dishes from littering your bedroom by the end of the week.

Invest in a bedside table that has a drawer. It will allow you to stash small items like hand cream and lip balm so that they’re not cluttering up surfaces.

How to Clean the Living Room

The name of the game in the living room is tidying and straightening.

Remove That Which Does Not Belong

The nature of the living room being what it is, items that do not necessarily belong in the living room often make their way in there. Items such as dirty socks, wine glasses and even Krazy Glue eventually should be put in their rightful places (the hamper, dishwasher and tool box, respectively).

Straighten and Square

Don’t underestimate the impact that taking a minute or two to fluff cushions, fold throw blankets and straighten decorative pillows can have on the look of your living room. Similarly, squaring up stacks of magazines and books is a fast and easy way to create the appearance of a tidy space. A quick pass of the feather duster over bookshelves and coffee tables will help get rid of dust with little fuss; microfiber cloths will eliminate fingerprints and smudges in a flash.

How to Clean a Couch

Your couch has a secret. Upholstered furniture comes with a code that should be used to determine what products should be used to clean it. The code can be found on the care tag, which is usually on the underside of the piece of furniture. It will read either W, S, SW or X. That code can be interpreted as follows:

  • W = Wet/water cleaning only. You can clean these with a number of methods: diluted dish soap and a rag, upholstery cleaner or upholstery cleaning machines.
  • S = Dry solvent cleaning only. Use a specialized upholstery cleaner for these fabrics, as water-based cleaners can cause damage.
  • SW = Dry solvent and/or wet cleaning. You can use either wet or dry solvent methods.
  • X = Professional cleaning or vacuuming only. These couches should only be vacuumed, and you’ll have to find a professional to tackle stain removal. If you have children, pets, and/or an active social life, please avoid purchasing an X-code couch.

How to Clean Your Floors

When it comes to keeping the floors clean, it’s as important to know what not to use as it is to know what to use.

Your Basic Tools

The basic tools in a floor cleaning arsenal: vacuum, mop (wet, dry or steam) and broom. And, while absolutely no one wants to hear this, there is a lot to be said for getting down on your hands and knees to do the floors with a scrub brush and rags.

How to Clean Carpet

If you have carpet or area rugs in your home, owning a vacuum is pretty much non-negotiable. The best vacuum is the one you’ll use frequently, which sounds facile, but the most souped-up vacuum in the world is no good to you if it’s too heavy to lift out of its storage space. It may be helpful to consult The Sweethome’s guide to vacuum styles, Which Vacuum Should I Get? For stains, a carpet and upholstery cleaner is a good thing to have when inevitable spills happen.

How to Clean Wood Floors

Before you can clean wood flooring, try this trick to figure out if you have surface-sealed, or oil- or penetrating-sealed wood floors: Run your finger across the floor: If there’s a smudge, the floors are oil- or penetrating-sealed; if not, they’re surface-sealed.

When cleaning surface-sealed wood floors, avoid very hot water and abrasive cleaners. Use warm water to dilute dish soap, white vinegar or ammonia for these floors. Glass cleaner also works well. Oil- or penetrating-sealed wood should be cleaned with a broom or dry mop and vacuumed; avoid products that contain acrylic or water-based wax.

How to Clean Laminate Floors

Laminate flooring should not be cleaned with soap, abrasives or products that contain abrasives. Instead, clean the floors routinely with a dry or damp mop. If a cleaning solution is needed, diluted ammonia or white vinegar can be used sparingly.

How to Clean Linoleum Floors

Linoleum should also not be cleaned using very hot water, abrasives or with wax- or solvent-based products. Instead, clean the floors routinely with a dry or damp mop. If a cleaning solution is needed, diluted ammonia or white vinegar can be used sparingly.

How to Clean Tile and Natural Stone Floors

Tile and natural stone flooring should never be cleaned using abrasives or a vacuum with a brush roll attachment, both of which can cause scratching, nicking or cracking. The brush roll is a rotating brush that’s great on carpeting for getting deep into fibers, but that shouldn’t be used on hard surfaces. Ceramic and porcelain tile can be cleaned using oxygen bleach, chlorine bleach or diluted dish soap.

How to Clean Your Car

The car is often treated like a living room on wheels. Clean and tidy as often as you prefer, but when it comes to cleaning up spills, don’t delay.

How to Clean Your Car’s Floors and Seats

A handheld vacuum will do wonders for the interior of your car, without requiring a whole lot of work on your part, making it possibly the most crucial tool to own if you want to keep a tidy-looking vehicle. Pet hair, Cheerios, dirt and gravel, stray French fries and so on will be gone in no time, and you’ll be surprised at what a simple vacuuming can do for the appearance of the seats, especially ones covered in fabric upholstery.

How to clean stains on car upholstery: Stains on fabric seats can be removed using an upholstery cleaner. It can be helpful to use the cleaning agent in concert with a white or light-colored rag, which will allow you to see how much of the stain you’re picking up. Upholstery cleaner can also be used to clean stains from the headliner (the fabric-covered interior roof), but it’s important to apply the cleaner to a rag, rather than directly to the headliner, which shouldn’t be saturated with liquid. Use the rag to gently scrub in the direction of the grain, and let the headliner air dry before repeating if needed. Leather seats and interior detail can be cleaned using leather conditioner or, in the case of very bad stains, saddle soap. When choosing a product to clean leather seats, look to leather shoe cleaners (you may even have one already).

How to Clean a Car Seat

Children’s car seats take a terrible beating. Spills, diaper blowouts, carsickness, crumbled cookies, and on and on and on, will make a mess of a car seat. That handheld vacuum you used on the adult seats can also be used to clean up smashed Goldfish. When messes occur that are beyond what a vacuum can clean up (see the aforementioned messes), remove the unit from the car to make it easier and less back-breaking to clean. Tip: Try a little WD-40 to remove sticky messes. (Remember to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for laundering car seat covers.)

Nooks and Crannies

Compressed air can be used to blow crumbs, hair or dust from hard-to-clean spaces like cupholders and door side pockets. Sticky spills that have dried can be given the same hot compress treatment as sticky spills in the fridge: Wet a sponge or rag with very hot water, being careful not to burn your hand, and press it on the spill until it begins to loosen, at which point it can be wiped away. Keep a pack of bathroom wipes in your car for quickly addressing spills, both on hard and upholstered surfaces.

How to clean your dashboard: Be careful when choosing dashboard cleaning products, as many can cause glare. Avoid any products that contain ammonia or alcohol, which can cause cracking. Simple as it sounds, the best thing to use to clean a dashboard is a damp microfiber cloth. For stubborn stains, add a small amount of dish soap to the cloth. Vents can also be wiped clean using a damp cloth, and a dry paintbrush or toothbrush can be used to remove dust and crumbs from vents and control buttons.

​How to Remove Odors from Your Car

When your car takes on a terrible odor, forget the dangling trees from the rearview mirror and opt for a canister- or brick-style odor eliminator, like the Bad Air Sponge or Innofresh Auto Odor Eliminator. Good old Lysol is also excellent at quickly deodorizing and disinfecting the interior of the car or trunk.

Tidying Up After Pets and Kids

Your filthy and adored dependents excel at making messes of your home and car. It’s a good thing they’re cute.


How to wash stuffed animals: Plush toys, whether they belong to the family pet or a child, can be laundered, either in the machine or by hand. Most toys can take a spin in the washer, but in the case of especially beloved or fragile plush companions, washing by hand will provide a gentler experience for precious friends.

When machine washing, use the gentle cycle, cold water and a mild detergent. Place small toys, or ones with hair or embellishments, in a mesh wash bag to prevent tangling and snagging. Add towels to the load when washing toys that have hard parts, to prevent damage to your machine and a horrible racket.

How to wash plastic toys: Cleaning hard plastic toys is as easy as washing dishes: You can put them on the top rack of the dishwasher or wash a big load of them by filling the sink with hot water and a few drops of dish soap. If the household includes a child or an adult with a compromised immune system (or if the idea of commingling your dinner plates with your pet’s water bowl grosses you out), wash pet items in a separate load.

Fluid Clean-up

The first rule of fluid cleanup is to absorb as much liquid as possible using paper towels or dry rags.

Are fruit juice and wine stains common problems in your household? Get a bottle of Wine Away. Do pets or children have frequent accidents? Nature’s Miracle is indeed a miracle at eliminating urine stains and smells, regardless of origin. Do you have toddlers who are prone to frequent vomiting? Super-Sorb will greatly improve the process of cleaning up those messes.

Pet Hair Management

Frequent vacuuming goes a long way in keeping tumbleweeds of dog or cat hair from drifting around the home. You don’t need a specialty vacuum if you have pets, but if they’re especially furry, avoid bagged models.

Is pet hair on the couch or bed driving you mad? Try running a rubber glove or grooming mitt over fabric surfaces, which will pick up clumps of hair.

The Cleaning Supply Closet

With cleaning supplies, it’s worth paying a bit more for quality. It’s also a good idea to skip pricey “shortcut” or disposable-style products in favor of well-made tools and multiuse cleaners. These are some of the best.
    • Dish Soap
      Seventh Generation Dish Liquid

      Read more about the best dish soap pick from The Sweethome.

    • All-Purpose Cleaner
      Puracy Natural Multi-Surface Cleaner

      Everyone needs an all-purpose cleaner, and this is the best of the bunch. Read more about the best all-purpose cleaner picks from The Sweethome.

    • Powder Cleanser
      Bon Ami

      An old-school choice that can be used in the kitchen and bathroom. It’s gentle, so it won’t scratch porcelain or stainless steel.

    • Bathroom Cleaner
      Scrubbing Bubbles

      Want to make short work of cleaning the bathroom? You need this foaming cleaner in your life.

    • Glass Cleaner

      Many glass cleaners are good; Windex is consistently great.

    • Carpet and W-Code Upholstery Cleaner

      It’s important to check that a carpet cleaner is safe to use on the textile in need of cleaning, but this will be the right choice for most.

    • S-Code Upholstery Cleaner

      Again, make sure you check that an upholstery cleaner is safe on the fabric. But Blue Coral and Guardsman offer upholstery cleaners that can safely be used on S-code fabrics.

    • Pet Stain Remover
      Nature’s Miracle

      Good at both pet and human messes.

    • Wine Stain Remover
      Wine Away

      Great for fruit juice and cranberry sauce as well.

    • Liquid Clean Up

      Great for a major, or very gross, liquid mess

Cum cresti avocado in ghiveci. Reguli de sadire si ingrijire

Daca obisnuiesti sa consumi avocado in salata sau in delicioasa pasta guacamole, ar fi bine sa stii ca numai din samburele pe care il arunci poti obtine un frumos copacel decorativ in interior. Iata cum cresti avocado in ghiveci.

Pregatiti samburele

Curatati samburele de resturile de pulpa si indepartati-i coaja cu varful unui cutit, dar fara a indeparta pielita maro care il protejeaza.

Identificati varful (usor alungit) si partea de jos (care este plata), sa stiti cum il puneti.

cum cresti avocado in ghiveci

Bagati in sambure trei scobitori, repartizate uniform in jurul circumferintei, astfel incat sa il puteti indroduce in apa pe jumatate, sprijinind scobitorile de buza paharului.

Este important sa folositi un paharel prin care sa vedeti, pentru a observa cand trebuie schimbata apa si cand cresc radacinile.

Cum cresti avocado in ghiveci. Incoltirea

Scufundati samburele pe jumatate in apa, cu partea plata in jos.

cum cresti avocado in ghiveci

Puteti schimba apa o data la 5-6 zile, pentru a preveni aparitia mucegaiului sau bacteriilor care pot opri germinarea. Aceasta poate dura cel putin 8 saptamani.

Partea de sus a semintei se va usca si se va forma o fisura, iar pielea exterioara maro va cadea. Fisura se va extinde pana in partea de jos si prin crapatura o radacina mica va incepe sa apara. Aceasta va creste si poate deveni putin lemnoasa.

cum cresti avocado in ghiveci

Din varful samburelui va creste un mic vlastar. Atunci cand acesta atinge inaltimea de 15-20 cm, se poate planta.

cum cresti avocado in ghiveci

Cum cresti avocado in ghiveci. Sadirea

Folositi un vas cu diametrul de 26 de cm, cu sol usor acid, cu valori de pH cuprinse intre 6 si 6,5 Pentru a ajunge la aceste valori, adaugati la suprafata ghiveciului se adauga un strat decorativ de scoarta de copac maruntita sau chiar amestec de talas.

Solul poate sa contina un procent mare de turba, un amestec potrivit este turba si pamantul de gradina usor, mixate in proportii egale.

Lasati jumatatea superioara a semintei de avocado expusa la lumina. Ghiveciul se plaseaza pe un pervaz insorit.

cum cresti avocado in ghiveci

Cum cresti avocado in ghiveci. Ingrijirea

Planta are nevoie de udari frecvente. Solul trebuie sa fie mereu umed, insa nu saturat. Ingalbenirea frunzelor este un semn de prea multa apa, in acest caz lasa pamantul sa se usuce cateva zile.

Daca frunzele devin maronii si petiolul lor se usuca, pH-ul solului din ghiveci este prea ridicat (alcalin). In acest caz, se uda din abundenta (se poate chiar scufunda intr-o galeata cu apa) dupa care se lasa se scurga.

Atunci cand tulpina ajunge la 30 cm, indepartati ultimele 2 seturi de frunze de sus, pentru a incuraja cresterea unor muguri laterali si a mai multor frunze, ceea ce va face planta mai stufoasa. De fiecare data cand planta mai creste inca 15 cm, indepartati ultimele 2 frunze din partea de sus.

Ca si in cazul altor arbori de apartament obtinuti din samburi sau seminte, avocado nu fructifica decat dupa o perioada lunga de timp, putand dura si 15 ani, sau nu face fructe deloc. De aceea, pentru a il forta sa faca fructe, il puteti altoi, asemeni citricelor, atunci cand tulpina lui se lignifica si devine groasa cat un creion.


Surse foto:,,,


Reteta jeleu ( ca in spitalele americane )

Proprietăţile gelatinei

  • este bogată în proteine de origine animală (1 linguriţă conţine 6 g de proteine)
  • îmbunătăţeşte digestia şi previne constipaţia
  • este folositor împotriva alergiilor digestive
  • creşte elasticitatea cartilajelor şi întăreşte oasele
  • elimină toxinele
  • conţine keratină, o proteină necesară pentru păr, dinţi, unghii şi piele
  • netezeşte ridurile şi face pielea mai elastică datorită conţinutului de colagen
  • stimulează slăbirea şi accelerează metabolismul

Veţi avea nevoie de

  • 3 linguriţe de gelatină
  • 1 cană de ceai verde
  • 1 cană de suc proaspăt stors de grepfrut sau căpşuni
  • 1 cană de suc de portocale
  • miere de albine (după gust)

Adăugaţi mierea de albine în ceai verde proaspăt preparat. Apoi dizolvaţi în el gelatina şi adăugaţi sucurile. Lăsaţi amestecul să se răcească până la temperatura camerei, după care puneţi jeleul în boluri şi lăsaţi-l în frigider pentru 3 ore.